With more than 1. Scholars can even monitor how many people download their articles. Six thousand sessions take place daily, with some receiving hundreds of comments the typical paper gets about 15 to 20 , according to Price. For Price, opening up research to the general public and the entire world is a moral obligation.
While most of the audience at Academia. Price said he talked to a scientist from the University of Nairobi, for example, who conducted research for years without proper access to American work, until he joined Academia. In the past, the biggest challenge to this website came from the publishers.
Two years ago, the publisher Elsevier demanded that authors, Academia.
For a while, according to Price, Elsevier was sending them hundreds of take-down notices per day. But it stopped, he said, because it was against its interest as a publisher to alienate academics. And regardless, the practice of putting published articles online was already a common practice.
Why Students Should Still Write Research Papers
Lately, challenges have come from within the academic community, even among advocates for open access. Take Kathleen Fitzpatrick , the director of scholarly communication at the Modern Language Association, who oversees The Commons , a social network of 5, MLA members, and the recently launched The Core , a repository of papers and research for the MLA that effectively competes with Academia. Fitzpatrick recently critiqued Academia. Because Academia. Some users, she suggested, might be misled by its domain name and not realize that they are working with a company rather than a school.
Starting in the s, the U. Supreme Court began chipping away at the in loco parentis doctrine, giving college students more civil liberties such as the right of due process in disciplinary proceedings Dixon v. Alabama Board of Education , Blair , specifically academic misconduct was ruled to require due process, being a disciplinary matter and not an educational matter. For instance, the student has no right to representation and the burden of proof is not necessarily stringent.
How to Write Research Paper . . . and Get an A+
These new rules put an end to the old faculty-based system of policing academic dishonesty, now students were entitled to an impartial hearing. While schools using the old honor code method or the mixed judicial system were not affected by these decisions, schools using the faculty based system generally instituted systems that relied on a committee of faculty and administrators or a dean to run the academic misconduct hearings. Recently, Donald L. McCabe and Linda Klebe Trevino, two experts in the field of academic dishonesty, have proposed a new way of deterring cheating that has been implemented in schools such as the University of Maryland.
Modified honor codes put students in charge of the judicial hearing process, making it clear that it is the students' responsibility to stop cheating amongst themselves, but at the same time students still have proctored exams and are not allowed to take pledges of good conduct in place of professor oversight. However, while modified honor codes seem to be more effective than faculty or administration run integrity codes of conduct, research shows that schools with modified codes still have higher rates of cheating than schools with full honor codes.
Research has shown that there is a strong correlation between forms of academic integrity system and levels of cheating at a school. Several studies have found students who attend schools with honor codes are less likely to cheat than students at schools with traditional integrity codes. The modified honor code attempts to cultivate peer disapproval of cheating while maintaining the traditional proctor system, although critics argue that the proctor system undermines the creation of an atmosphere of student self-policing, reducing the effectiveness of the honor code, possibly explaining why modified honor codes have not been as effective as the original version.
There are limitations to relying on the faculty to police academic dishonesty. There are other reasons as well. Some professors are reluctant to report violations to the appropriate authorities because they believe the punishment to be too harsh. Some professors may have little incentive to reduce cheating in their classes below a point that would otherwise be obvious to outside observers, as they are rated by how many research papers they publish  and research grants they win for the college, and not by how well they teach.
Others do not report academic misconduct because of postmodernist views on cheating. Postmodernism calls into question the very concepts of "authorship" and "originality. Moreover, in the field of composition studies, students are being encouraged more and more to do group work and participate in ongoing collective revision. The postmodernist view is that "the concept of intellectual malpractice is of limited epistemological value.
Under the ironic gaze of postmodernism, the distinctions between guilt and innocence, integrity and deceit permeating the scandal debates appear irrelevant. One professor wrote in an article in The English Journal that when he peeked in on an unproctored class taking a test and saw several students up and consulting with one another, he decided that they were not cheating, but were using non-traditional techniques and collaborative learning to surmount the obstacles teachers had put in their way.
Another issue teachers may have with deterring cheating is that they may decide that it is not their job. The argument that "they're professors, not policemen" is often heard in academia. With the advancement of the internet, there are now several tools available to aid in the detection of plagiarism and multiple publication within biomedical literature.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For misconduct in research, see Scientific misconduct.
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This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Bribery.
Main article: Cheating.
Improving the Quality of Education
Main article: Deception. Main article: Impersonation. Main article: Plagiarism. Main article: Sabotage. This section is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Academic honor code. The student should be given adequate notice in writing of the specific ground or grounds and the nature of the evidence on which the discipline proceedings are based.
The student should be given an opportunity for a hearing in which the disciplinary authority provides a fair opportunity for hearing of the student's position, explanations, or evidence. No disciplinary action may be taken on grounds which are not supported by any substantial evidence.
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