It is speculated that the heat from the sun made it impossible for the gases present to become part of the planetary formation. The surface of Mercury is extremely hot. It is approximately degrees celsius on the surface and is thought to be even hotter at the two " hot spots. It is the heat of the surface that makes it impossible for Mercury to have any type of atmosphere.
Mercury orbits the sun once every 88 days and has a true rotation period of It is said that Mercury rotates three times for every two trips around the sun, so that during Planets 3 every alternate perihelion passage the same face points directly at the sun. It is speculated that it was the solidification of Mercury's metallic core that caused this global shrinkage. Mercury is also. It is also believed that some of the inner core of Mercury is still in a fluid state.
Scientists also believe that Mercury's surface is made partially of silicate rock. The best way to describe Mercury is,. Venus is the second closest planet to the sun and is said to. Venus is known to most scientists as the sister planet to the Earth.
It is called this because it closely resembles the Earth's mass, density and diameter. The only thing different is that Venus " is shrouded in thick clouds that completely hide the surface of the planet " Grolier, The surface temperature is also much warmer than that of Earth. Venus completes one revolution around the sun in This makes the Venusian day equal to earth days.
It is thought that this slow rotation may be the reason why Venus has no magnetic field. This atmosphere also has the presence of helium, neon and argon. This is yet another thing which makes Venus different from Earth. The surface of Venus is quite a bit like that of the Earth. The surface has volcanoes and smooth plains. One thing that differs from Earth is that there is no water liquid on the Venusian surface.
Some of the scientific data that follows was taken out of Cattermole's book. The mean distance from the sun is The equatorial diameter is 12, Km and the equatorial rotation is days. Finally the mass of Venus is 4. Venus, although different than Earth, is still our sister planet. Mars is the fourth furthest away from the sun and is recognized by its reddish color.
Mars is also very much like the Earth. One thing that is very similar to Earth is the rotation period.
Astronomy 1 Essay Questions
Mars rotation period is only thirty seven minutes longer than the Earth's. This would explain why Mars has significant seasonal changes just as Earth does. It is believed that the Planets 5 difference between winter and summer on Mars is even greater than on Earth. Mars is extremely hard to understand due to the effect of blurring that is caused by the two atmospheres of Mars. Scientists do know, however, that Mars is relatively small and that changes take place in the surface features when the seasons change. It is also known that dust storms are prevalent and leaves the surface of Mars covered by a red haze.
The Pluto Controversy: What's A Planet, Anyway?
Mars has a very thin atmosphere which is composed of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, water vapor and oxygen. Mars also has no magnetic field. Therefore, the surface is basically plain-like and covered with large craters. There are also some areas where the rock is " jumbled. What evidence exists for the origin of the Universe? What observations can be made to support the current origin theory? How old is the Universe, and what were the primordial materials from which the Universe formed?
What are Galaxies? How do they form and how many are in the Universe? How did our Solar System form? What is the most likely hypothesis? How old is our Solar System? How is this known? Why is the age of the Solar System so much different from the age of the Universe? What are meteorites? What do they tell us about the formation of Earth? How old is Earth? Is the moon a planet? Why or why not?
What is the Solar System?
Are all planets alike? Is Earth similar to or different from other planets in our Solar System? Does water exist on any other planet in our Solar System? That's about 1. Even recently the late s Europe and North America were a bit cooler than they are now, experiencing a little ice age , and changes in the Sun were most likely responsible. The ozone hole is something different. Ozone is important to humans because it shields us from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
The chemicals from leaky refrigerators and air conditioners make their way up in to highest part of the Earth's atmosphere. Way up there, these chemicals destroy ozone , and scientists have noticed recently that the layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere is becoming thin in some places. Scientists must study this so we can understand why it is occurring, and to take action now to protect it.
It is interesting, however, that ozone is considered a pollutant when it is close to the ground. It hurts plants and trees, and our lungs. But we need it way up high to shield us from the UV. Also, learning more about the Sun helps us to understand better other stars. And this helps us understand better the universe in which we live.
Studying the Sun and how it affects the Earth is a very complicated process.
In order to successfully do this, scientists approach the problem in many different ways. They separate their scientific efforts into categories and usually specialize in specific areas, such as How the amount of light from the Sun varies over time , or How the Sun's light affects the Earth's climate. Some scientists study the Sun using computers to predict what the Sun may do in the future. Others build special instruments which look at the Sun and make measurements; they use computers both to collect and later make sense of the measurements.
The Aurora are colorful, whispy, moving curtains of light that occur in the night sky near one the Earth's poles. This light moves around in and changes color in a dazzling dance of light. The aurora are caused by energetic particles coming from the Sun. The Sun is very active, always putting stuff out into space. Every once in a while it can suddenly eject material -- a million tons of it—into space. Some of this comes towards the Earth and hits our atmosphere. The material small particles interacts with the Earth's outer atmosphere, causing the gas in the atmosphere to release light.
This light appears in many different colors green, blue, and red , and we call it the aurorae. In the north they are called aurora boreallis , or northern lights. In the south they are called aurora australis , or southern lights. Periodically the Moon will move directly in front of the the Sun.
When it does, it blocks the light coming from the Sun. If it blocks out the Sun totally, we call this a total eclipse. If the Moon only blocks part of the Sun, it is a partial eclipse. You may wish to visit a real total eclipse , observed from the South American country Chile in During a partial eclipse , you can still see part of the Sun behind the Moon, so you must not look at it. But, if you look at shadows from the leaves in trees you'll see they appear crescent shaped.
Ask your teacher to make a pinhole camera , or project an image of the Sun using a mirror, and you'll be able to see the Moon blocking the Sun. During a total eclipse , the bright Sun is completely blocked.
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