Children between the ages of two and two and a half do not attend to verbal information as much as adults. Children rely instead on nonverbal information. Thus, it may have been necessary for the children in the present study to translate nonverbal information into verbal information when reporting about a past event; a task requiring a well-developed language capability.
Simcock and Hayne [ 1 ] found that children are not skilled in the translation of nonverbal information into verbal information. They discovered however, that interaction with a mother providing rich narrations greatly assisted children in this task. A mother's verbalizations provide children with a greater vocabulary, increasing their verbal memory abilities.
The importance of word familiarity was demonstrated by [ ]. The mothers in the present study did not aid their children during the Magic Cutting Task. It is possible that a correlation may have been found if mothers were allowed to narrate to their children during this task. There are a number of limitations in the interpretation of results from the present study. Not all children who participated in this study were excited about answering the memory questions, so the data that is used in this research may not be a good representative of 2-year-old's memory.
In addition, the sampling method was not random but of convenience and the sample size was small and homogenous in that family backgrounds were socioeconomically similar.
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The one month interval between sessions may also have been a confounding variable. The experiences during the interval most likely varied between children. Some children may have been exposed to experiences that may influence subsequent performance on the memory task. For example, some children may have encountered a similar task in the one month interval and may therefore perform better. On the other hand, it is possible that a child who had been exposed to a task similar to the Magic Cutting Task may answer questions at the second session that relate to the interim task experience.
The negative findings from this study are important in the area of child memory and language development. Previous studies have shown significant effects between child memory and child language development [ 8 ]. In addition, research has shown that, conversation styles of mothers impact immediate and long-term memory of children [ ].
More recently, Reese and Newcombe [ 12 ] trained a group of mothers to others use more words while interacting with their children. Children of trained mothers demonstrated richer and more accurate memories than children of untrained mothers. The discrepancy between our results and results from prior studies investigating similar variables is intriguing and may ultimately be due to some limitations of the present study.
Repeating the present study with an increased sample size may raise the significance level of our results. The age of the children in the present study may also be a factor in the negative results. Two years old may be too young to assess the relationship between memory and mother narrative style. This study should be repeated with older children. SMK and SC participated in the conception of the study. SC carried out in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis.
SMK conceived of the study and, participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Clin Med Res. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Email: moc. Accepted Jun 6. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The question of whether children and infants have memory capabilities similar to adults has long been of interest.
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Methods Convenience sampling was used to select participants. Results To explore the relationships between mothers' narrative styles and children's memory and language skills and between children's language skills and memory capabilities, linear regressions were run. Conclusions Children's language skills do not improve according to their mothers' narrative styles, and children do not show better memory abilities when mothers use more words and longer sentences. Keywords Child; Mother; Memory; Narrative style. Introduction The question of whether children and infants have memory capabilities similar to adults has long been of interest.
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Material and Methods Convenience sampling was used to select participants. Results There were 14 mothers who participated in the Frog Story task assessing narrative style. Open in a separate window. SD: standard deviation; CI: confidence interval. Discussion The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between mothers' narrative styles and children's memory abilities and language skills. Conflict of Interest Authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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References 1. Simcock G, Hayne H. Age-related changes in verbal and nonverbal memory during early childhood. Dev Psychol. Age differences in the contribution of recollection and familiarity to false-memory formation: a new paradigm to examine developmental reversals. Dev Sci. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag; Measuring variability in early child language: don't shoot the messenger.
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Child Dev. Inferences on Inference: The effects of age, transitive ability, memory load, and lexical factors. Yonelinas AP. Receiver-operating characteristics in recognition memory: evidence for a dual-process model. These three distinct evidences are then further elaborated through characters in body paragraphs. Dialogue is used to capture the conversation between characters.
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In a narrative essay, dialogue is the third important element, without which the characters lose their worth and liveliness. This paragraph is an example from a narrative essay of Maya Angelou. She has described how a girl looks, and how she behaves. She has also written direct dialogues to show that it is a narrative. She introduced me.
He bent low from the waist and shook my hand. Was it true as my mother had told him, he asked, that I longed for the opportunity to conquer the world of business?
The Relationship Between Mother Narrative Style and Child Memory
In this piece from a narrative essay by Russell Baker of the famed Saturday Evening Post , the author has fully described the efforts of his mother by her dialogue. Both character and dialogue are very clear.
That explains everything. In this essay, the author has given full description of a daughter — how she looks and how she behaves. A narrative essay describes people, presents their conversation, and narrates their experiences to teach lessons to readers. In fact, it is like a story, but different in that it is weaved around a motif. A motif is given before the incidents of the essay. Readers become aware of this single theme, central idea, or motif once they go through the essay.
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