Interpreting misperception: beauty is in the ear of the beholder.
Ph.D. Dissertations - Department of Linguistics - UCLA
Experimental approaches to phonology. Oxford : Oxford University Press. The sound pattern of English. Crosswhite , Katherine Vowel reduction in Optimality Theory. Flemming , Edward S. Auditory representations in phonology. Frisch , Stefan A. Similarity and frequency in phonology. PhD dissertation, Northwestern University. Similarity avoidance and the OCP. NLLT Gordon , Matthew Syllable weight: phonetics, phonology, and typology.
Hansson , Gunnar Theoretical and typological issues in consonant harmony. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Jun , Jongho Perceptual and articulatory factors in place assimilation: an Optimality-theoretic approach. Kaun , Abigail R.
The typology of rounding harmony: an optimality theoretic approach. Kirchner , Robert An effort-based approach to consonant lenition. Place assimilation and phonetic grounding: a cross-linguistic perceptual study. Phonology Models were fitted using the maximal possible random effects structure, following Barr et al. Full data are included in the Supplementary Materials for this paper.
Sensitivity across all conditions is shown in Figure 3. Chance performance on this measure is zero. The statistical models reported below assess sensitivity in terms of the closely related difference between logit hit and logit false alarms or equivalently, the log of the odds ratio of hits to false alarms. Median performance in all conditions is greater than chance. Horizontal lines are median values; boxes are interquartile intervals; whiskers are ranges.
Fixed effects from logit mixed regression models for both experiments are given in Tables 1 and 2. Sensitivity is well above chance in the Spir1 condition, which was treated as the reference level for dummy-coded condition effect 1. The difference in sensitivity between Anti-Spir and Spir1 is large and significant effect 1. Sensitivity is somewhat higher in Spir2 than in Spir1 effect 1. Sensitivity is above chance in the baseline voicing condition effect 2.
The model estimates that sensitivity in the voicing condition is about 0. A number of the task-related variables included here also affected sensitivity. In both experiments, sensitivity decreased during the course of the experiment as measured by trial number. For the spirantization conditions, the natural logarithm of trial number was the best predictor effect 1.
In the spirantization conditions, participants were slightly more accurate on trials following an error effect 1. As mentioned in section 2. This is qualitatively consistent with Saffran et al. In order to investigate the hypothesis that our results reflect experience with English phonology, we conducted a post-hoc analysis to determine whether response accuracy or bias differed by consonant place of articulation.
Manifestations of Genericity (Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics)
The Spir2 condition, the results for which were statistically indistinguishable from Spir1, was not included in these analyses. These by-stimulus percentages were then averaged according to the position, place, and manner of the consonants in the stimulus, with the result that a given stimulus contributes a separate data point for each of its consonants.
The resulting plots are shown in Figure 4.
Proportion hits for targets and false alarms for foils for probe items containing consonants at different places of articulation in initial and medial positions. Separate charts show voiced stops top left and continuants top right in spirantization conditions, and voiceless obstruents bottom left and voiced obstruents bottom right in voicing conditions. If this knowledge of the English lexicon is impacting our results, then we should expect that target stimuli beginning with voiced coronal continuants i. Similarly, foils beginning with voiced coronal continuants i.
English lexical statistics are not the only type of prior phonological knowledge that could have impacted our results; recall that while spirantization and voicing lenition are not generally considered robust phonological processes in English, previous work indicates that they do exist as low-level, variable phonetic processes.
Thus with respect to the phonological alternations tested in our experiments, we should predict the greatest number of hits for target words — and the greatest number of false alarms for foils — for places of articulation that are most likely to undergo variable, low-level phonetic lenition in English. Further, any such biases should be expected to hold steady across experiment conditions i.
Concerning spirantization, recall from Section 1. Word-medial continuants in the spirantization conditions are plotted in the upper right panel of Figure 4 , and word-medial stops are plotted in the upper left panel of Figure 4. There is no indication that place of articulation for word-medial stops has any appreciable effect on either the hit rate or the false alarm rate in the spirantization conditions. The bottom two panels of Figure 4 show the results for the voicing conditions of the experiment. Given the weakness of both the predictions and the trends regarding place of articulation and voicing lenition, we conclude that the results of the voicing experiments do not strongly favor the hypothesis that English knowledge impacted the outcome of our experiments.
We tentatively conclude that prior experience with English did not play a significant role in the present experiment. The experiments reported on here find limited evidence that lenition patterns aid English listeners in segmenting the speech stream.
Performance in the spirantization conditions is considerably better than the anti-spirantization condition, and this result is statistically quite robust. Performance in the voicing condition, however, is only marginally better than the anti-voicing condition, and this effect is highly variable, not reaching statistical significance. The effect on sensitivity of the slightly more lenis approximants used in the Spir2 condition relative to Spir1 is also small, variable, and non-significant.
The boundary-disruption approach holds that spirantization is widespread in human languages in part because it aids listeners in detecting linguistic constituents, by aligning moments of auditory disruption in the speech stream with constituent boundaries. A clear prediction arising from this proposal is that in a speech perception paradigm, spirantization should aid listeners in segmenting the speech stream into constituents.
In the spirantization conditions, we found a large, robust effect in this direction. As such, these results can be seen as providing support for the boundary-disruption approach, although there are other possible interpretations, discussed in Section 4.mugadova.ru/modules/27.php
Palatal Phenomena in Spanish Phonology
The existence of a spirantization effect is of interest in and of itself, as there have been few demonstrations in the word segmentation literature that allophonic variation in manner of articulation can have an effect on segmentation. This is also, to the best of our knowledge, the first investigation of a common lenition pattern in the word segmentation paradigm. The finding that spirantization improves word segmentation performance is also interesting from the perspective of phonological theory. Most literature on lenition has tended to locate its functional motivation firmly in the articulatory sphere e.
Harris ; Kingston ; Katz ; Cohen Priva The current study is one of the first to show that lenition patterns can exert a significant effect on the processing of novel linguistic items.
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- Auditory disruption improves word segmentation: A functional basis for lenition phenomena.
- (PDF) Testing the P-Map: Lenition and Position | Chad Hall - guiflutinzeilia.gq!
This result provides prima facie evidence that the perception and processing of lenition-fortition patterns is worth focusing on and exploring in more detail, along the lines of the theoretical work mentioned above. There is little evidence here for a syntagmatic effect of lenition, whereby larger phonetic differences between fortis and lenis segments aid segmentation more.
Related approach based consonant dissertation effort in lenition linguistics outstanding
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